|Disorder||Share of global population with disorder||Insomnia with Depression||Men with Insomnia||Women with Insomnia|
|INSOMNIA||50% of adults||83%||20%||27%|
Most people know that getting a good night’s sleep is important, but too few of us actually make those hours a priority. The latest sleep recommendations from the National Sleep Foundation Scientific Advisory Council are:
You cycle through all stages of non-REM and REM sleep several times during a typical night, with increasingly longer, deeper REM periods occurring toward the morning. REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep first occurs about 90 minutes after falling asleep. The sleep stages are given in the table below.
Two internal biological mechanisms – Circadian rhythm and homeostasis work together to regulate when you are awake and sleep. Night shift workers often have trouble falling asleep when they go to bed, and also have trouble staying awake at work because their natural circadian rhythm and sleep-wake cycle is disrupted. In the case of jet lag, circadian rhythms become out of sync with the time of day when people fly to a different time zone, creating a mismatch between their internal clock and the new location’s time.
Everyone spends about 2 hours each night dreaming, though they are not always able to recall what the dream was about. The exact purpose of dreaming remains unknown but some people believe that dreaming helps process emotions. Events from the day often invade your dreams and people suffering from stress or anxiety are more likely to have frightening dreams. Dreams can be experienced in all stages of sleep but are usually the most vivid in REM sleep. Some people dream in color, while others only recall dreams in black and white.
Sleep debt is a term used to describe cumulative sleep loss resulting from ongoing sleep deprivation. A large sleep debt may lead to mental or physical fatigue.
The 5 countries with the lowest average hours of sleep are:
1. Japan= 5 hours and 59 minutes
2. Saudi Arabia = 6 hours and 8 minutes
3. Sweden= 6 hours and 10 minutes
4. India= 6 hours and 20 minutes
5. The Philippines = 6 hours and 22 minutes
General symptoms of sleep disorders include:
The doctor will perform a physical exam, gather information about your symptoms and medical history, then order additional tests if required. These tests can be crucial in determining the right course of treatment for sleep disorders.The most common tests include:
The gold standard for diagnosing sleep disorders is a Polysomnography study which combines the EEG brain electrical activity signal with body movement, oxygen level and breathing.
EEG Recording and Analysis for Sleep Research
The electroencephalogram (EEG) is the most common tool used in sleep research. Sample data is provided for a typical night’s analysis of EEG during NREM (non-REM) and REM sleep.
Human Sleep and Sleep EEG
Summarizes the basic knowledge from the field of sleep research. The emphasis is on the exploration of the rules of polysomnographic recording and scoring sleep stages as well as on results and opinions about the nature of sleep EEG.
Sleep Stage Classification Using EEG Signal Analysis: A Comprehensive Survey and New Investigation
The limitations of manual sleep stage scoring have escalated the demand for developing Automatic Sleep Stage Classification (ASSC) systems. Sleep stage classification refers to identifying the various stages of sleep and is a critical step to assist physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of related sleep disorders.
Normal Sleep EEG
NREM and REM occur in alternating cycles, each lasting approximately 90-100 minutes, with a total of 4-6 cycles. For a healthy young adult, NREM sleep typically accounts for 75-90% of sleep time (3-5% stage I, 50-60% stage II, and 10-20% stages III and IV). REM sleep accounts for 10-25% of sleep time.
Treatment for sleep disorders can vary depending on the type and underlying cause. However, it generally includes a combination of the following:
Lifestyle adjustments can greatly improve your quality of sleep, especially alongside medical treatments.
Sessions with a therapist can lessen the symptoms of insomnia. For example, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) addresses negative thoughts and behavior patterns that contribute to insomnia or other sleeping problems.
Herbal and dietary sleep supplements (numerous). Note: natural doesn’t mean safe. While some remedies, such as lemon balm or chamomile tea are generally harmless, others can have more serious side effects and interfere with or reduce the effectiveness of prescribed medications. Valerian, for example, can interfere with antihistamines and statins. Do your research before trying a new herbal remedy and talk with your doctor or pharmacist if you have any pre-existing conditions or prescriptions that you take.
To help with:
NFB trains the brain to change the brainwave frequencies to get the desired result. Usually, NFB sessions are conducted 2-5 times a week for a total of 40-50 sessions. Each session lasts 30-60 minutes. Although this seems like a lengthy procedure, but the results are long-lasting. NFB is becoming increasingly popular as a stand-alone therapy or used in combination (with other therapies) to wean-off pharmacological agents that tend to produce undesirable side-effects.
Improve Mild Anxiety And Sleep Quality with a Neurofeedback Protocol
Increasing the power of sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) bands – a sort of EEG activity ranging from 12-15 Hz over the sensorimotor cortex – has been used successfully to improve memory and sleep quality.
Table 1 Pre-treatment and post-treatment evaluations
Construct or domain
Task or inventory
Score or time
Beck Anxiety Inventory
Beck Depression Inventory
Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index
Neurofeedback and the Neural Representation of Self: Lessons from Awake State and Sleep
A particularly promising approach is the analysis of resting state of fMRI (EEG + MRI) data, which has revealed robust covariations in brain networks that maintain their integrity in sleep and even anesthesia. Aberrant activity in three brain-wide networks (i.e. the default mode, central executive and salience networks) has been associated with a number of psychiatric disorders. Recent publications have also suggested that neurofeedback guides the restoration of “normal” activity in these three networks.
Neurofeedback for Insomnia: A Pilot Study of Z-Score SMR and Individualized Protocols
Binomial tests of baseline EEGs indicated a significant proportion of excessively high levels of Delta and Beta power (p<.001) which were lowered post-treatment (paired z-tests p<.001). Baseline EEGs showed excessive sleepiness and hyperarousal, which improved post-treatment. Both Z-Score NFB groups improved in sleep and daytime functioning. Post-treatment, all participants were normal sleepers.
TMS (Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation) and PEMF (Pulsed Electromagnetic Field) therapy are two modern electromagnetic techniques. Electromagnetic therapy has been used to alleviate many conditions for hundreds of years till the middle of 20th century, but now the Interest has once again increased, as shown by the increase in research and clinical studies in this field.
TMS equipment is costly, needs a clinical set-up and treats with current in the range of 1-2 Tesla. On the other hand, PEMF costs tremendously less, can be performed anywhere and anytime and the current used is in the range of 100-200 micro-tesla, significantly lower than TMS. This has led to popularity and preference for PEMF therapy, which is also used for other conditions like SLEEP (sleep disturbance), anxiety, depression, sleep improvement, PTSD (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder) and meditation. The beneficial effects of PEMF are increasingly growing and gaining popularity because of ease of use and simplicity of the apparatus.
PEMFs and SLEEP
People using PEMFs, regardless of the PEMF system, almost universally describe improvement in sleep.
Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy can improve sleep, according to 94% of users
Non-invasive and drug-free, PEMF therapy stimulates cellular repair to improve your body’s overall performance. It is an idea harnessed by NASA, using the Earth’s natural magnetic fields in a concentrated manner and has many benefits such as improving recovery time, pain-relief and sleep.
Impulse magnetic-field therapy for insomnia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study
In the active-treatment group, the values of all criteria were significantly lower at study end (P < .00001). No adverse effects of treatment were reported.
Open the Bellabee app on your mobile device and select “Improved Sleep” mode to use the pre-set protocol for SLEEP or use “Create Therapy” mode to customize therapy for SLEEP on the Bellabee software app. This software can be used with any android or IOS device.
All studies, contents and images have respective copyrights.
Disclaimer: The above statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. Bellabee© is intended for beneficial effects as set forth in the device and application directions and instruction literature. Bellabee© is designed to complement other therapies and users should consult with their providers to ensure that the use of Bellabee© is not contraindicated. Bellabee© does not claim to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any medical condition. Always consult your medical doctor regarding any health concerns. Do not reduce or stop taking medications without talking first with your prescribing physician. The use of a pEMF device is contraindicated for people with epilepsy, bleeding, implanted metals and pacemakers, or women who are or might be pregnant.