According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-V (DSM-V), six of the following symptoms must be present to diagnose ADHD, (primarily the inattentive type):
Numerous studies and research papers are done on this topic. Some of the pertinent ones are below:
THETA / BETA (T/B) RATIO
In different studies, up to 86% of children diagnosed with ADHD using traditional criteria had a T:B ratio higher than 3 : 1
Neural oscillations in resting state EEG in ADHD children – A preliminary study
Findings: Increased relative delta activity suggests cortical under-arousal and decreased theta may be related to cognitive impairment in ADHD children. Elevated gamma activity in ADHD children denotes their enhanced level of neuronal excitation with unspecific activation of processing resources. A distinct neural pattern distinguishes the ADHD group from the HP (Healthy Participants).
The increase in theta/beta ratio on resting-state EEG in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is mediated by slow alpha peak frequency
The present results suggest that previous findings of increased theta/beta ratio in ADHD may reflect individuals with slow alpha peak frequencies in addition to individuals with true increased theta activity. Therefore, the often reported theta/ beta ratio in ADHD can be considered a non-specific measure combining several distinct neurophysiological subgroups such as frontal theta and slowed alpha peak frequencies.
Brain functional connectivity abnormalities in attention?deficit hyperactivity disorder
While the TD (Typically Developing) and ADHD groups exhibited similar prefrontal FC (Functional Connectivity) increases prior to the appearance of the target in the reference task, these groups demonstrated significant FC differences in the interval preceding the appearance of the target in the CPT A?X task. Specifically, the ADHD group exhibited robust prefrontal and parieto?frontal FC increases that were not apparent in the TD group. The FC (Functional Connectivity) differences observed in the ADHD group are discussed in the context of inadequate suppression of cortical networks that may interfere with task performance.
Ritalin is the most frequently prescribed drug. It is a central nervous system stimulant.
Common side effects: Loss of appetite; nervousness; trouble in sleeping.
Less common side effects: Dizziness; drowsiness; headache; nausea; stomach pain.
This has led to alternative methods of treatment for ADHD/ADD. Extensive research by psychologists and neurofeedback specialists has been conducted in recent years and is still energetically pursued. Mostly they focus on increasing the beneficial brain wave frequencies while simultaneously decreasing the non-beneficial frequencies.
NFB is a very popular method used in combination with Ritalin to decrease the dosage, consequently lessening the side-effects to help children who are not responding to pharmacological therapy. Typically, NFB sessions are conducted 2-3 times a week for a total of 40-50 sessions. Each session lasts 30-45 minutes. Although this seems like a lengthy procedure, the results are long-lasting. NFB is becoming extremely popular and can be used as a stand-alone therapy or in combination with other forms of therapy.
Some of the recent, modern electromagnetic techniques are TMS (Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation) and PEMF (Pulsed Electromagnetic Field) therapy. The use of electromagnetic therapy to alleviate many conditions has been used for over hundreds of years till the end of 19th century. Interest in it was subdued in the middle period of 20th century, but has again increased, as evidenced by an increase in research and clinical studies in this field.
Non-invasive Brain Stimulation in Pediatric ADHD: A Review
[This article explains the] potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications of TMS and tDCS in pediatric ADHD. [It] also discusses the safety of using these tools [for] the pediatric population.
Transcranial direct current stimulation in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analysis of neuropsychological deficits
This meta-analysis supports a beneficial effect of tDCS on inhibitory control and WM (Working Memory) in ADHD. TDCS seems to be a promising method for improving neuropsychological and cognitive deficits in ADHD.
TMS equipment is costly, needs a clinical set-up and treats with current in the range of 1-2 Tesla. On the other hand, PEMF costs tremendously less, can be performed anywhere and anytime and the current used is in the range of 100-200 micro-tesla, significantly lower than TMS. This has led to popularity and preference for PEMF therapy, which is also used for other conditions like insomnia (sleep disturbance), anxiety, depression, stress, PTSD (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder). It can also improve meditation. The beneficial effects of PEMF are increasingly growing and gaining popularity due to ease of use and the simplicity of the apparatus.
Can PEMF Therapy Reduce Symptoms of ADHD?
With so many benefits from PEMF therapy, it is surprising that more doctors aren’t using this to help their patients. PEMF therapy has helped thousands to feel better and improve their quality of life.
Frustrated to the Core: ADHD/ADD
If you are an adult with ADHD or a parent of a child with this condition, please take into consideration the following “alternative” option that could give you back your POWER!
Open the Bellabee app on your mobile device and select “ADHD-Me” mode to use the pre-set protocol for ADHD or use “Create Therapy” mode to customize the wavelengths and duration for individual needs. This software can be used with any android or IOS device.
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Disclaimer: The above statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. Bellabee© is intended for beneficial effects as set forth in the device and application directions and instruction literature. Bellabee© is designed to complement other therapies and users should consult with their providers to ensure that the use of Bellabee© is not contraindicated. Bellabee© does not claim to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any medical condition. Always consult your medical doctor regarding any health concerns. Do not reduce or stop taking medications without talking first with your prescribing physician. The use of a pEMF device is contraindicated for people with epilepsy, bleeding, implanted metals and pacemakers, or women who are or might be pregnant.